Wednesday, November 10, 2010

在GAE上安装Jaiku Engine

Jaiku Engine是在Google App Engine上运行的一个微博平台(Microblogging),和时下流行的Twitter类似。Jaiku(http://www.jaiku.com/)2007年被Google收购,基本上停止开发,2009年重新登录GAE并公布源代码,取名Jaiku Engine,每个人都可以用它来假设自己的微博平台。 下载源代码 首先安装一个SVN客户端,比如TortoiseSVN ,然后Checkout Jaiku Engine的源代码,地址是:http://jaikuengine.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ ,不会用或者懒得用SVN的人可以下载我下载好的压缩包,不过这样以后就不好更新。 安装Google App Engine SDK for Python和Python 2.6 GAE SDK的下载地址是http://code.google.com/appengine/downloads.html ,最新版本1.2.7,Python的下载地址是http://www.python.org/download/ 这个网址最近刚被莫名其妙地封了,请自己想办法下载。记得下载2.6版本,而不是3.1,因为它不向下兼容。 配置Jaiku Engine 用文本编辑器打开settings.py。要配置的某些地方如下 第27行:管理员昵称和邮箱,这个现在还没有用,所以默认也是被注释了的 第133行:你的网站的名称 第140行:根用户,相当于管理员吧,填你想要的用户名,每个新注册的用户都会自动添加这个用户为联系人。格式[email protected],example.com就是下面会讲到的NS_Domain 第145行:你的appspot.com网站的地址 第149行:是否使用自定义的域名,比如我的judes.me。使用的话填True,否则填False,使用GAE提供的appspot.com 第154行:如果使用自定义域名,需要改这个。填你的裸域名,比如judes.me,而不是micro.judes.me 第157行:使用自定义域名的二级域名,比如我的就是micro。 第159行:NS Domain,每个注册的用户的数据的存储格式都是[email protected]_domain.com,不明白开发者这样的意图是什么。这里的NS_Domain可以随便填个域名,比如你的appspot.com的域名或者自己的域名,或者gmail.com等等根本无关的网站,填什么的可以,但注意,一旦使用之后就不要再更改,我上面说过了,数据库里的数据都是用[email protected]_domain.com的格式存储的,如果你改了NS_Domain的话,之前生成的数据就都不能读取了。 第177和178行:是否使用泛域名,也就是jude.micro.judes.me或者jude.micro-jude.appspot.com这样的形式。appspot.com现在是支持泛域名的,但是如果你使用自定义域名的话就不支持了。 第215行:是否在网站底部显示你的博客,填True的话就在下面第218行填上博客地址。 第289行:是否启用IM bot,这样用户就可以通过Gtalk等聊天工具更新微博。 第293行:IM bot地址,格式是[email protected] 第336行:是否启用导入Google帐户中联系人的功能,我是打开了的。 第359行:允许上传头像的最大尺寸,单位KB,最大1024. 上面弄好之后再打开cmd,用进入jaiku engine所在的目录,运行命令 manage.py config --write-to-file 程序会先将源码打包,然后要求你依次输入下面的配置 网站名称,同上面的settings.py中的第133行。 密匙,不知道有什么用。 你的在appspot.com上的完整的域名,例如micro-jude.appspot.com 是否启用自定义域名,yes或者no 你的自定义域名的裸域名,例如judes.me这样的形式 Namespace,就是上面提到的NS_Domain。 根用户名,同上面提到的第140行 是否使用安全登录,如果选是,使用自定义域名登录时会跳转到appspot.com 发送邮件的地址,即为你申请该AppID的Gmail的地址 程序会把刚才的配置写在jaiku根目录下local_settings.py这个文件,如果你使用自定义域名的话,还有写小问题。使用文本编辑器打开这个local_settings.py,其中DOMAIN和COOKIE_DOMAIN被自动写成了www.domain.com的形式,但应该没人是把Jaiku Engine放在www这个二级域名下吧?所以你需要手动把这两个地方改成实际使用的二级域名。 保存之后再在cmd中运行命令 manage.py update 或者 appcfg.py update ..\jaiku

Flash+PHP相册Imagevue V2

Imagevue在2008年7月份发布了它的最新版本V2 Beta,老用户和新购买用户都可以下载试用,商业授权为150USD、个人授权为54USD、二次开发授权为42USD。 Imagevue V2功能1.加入了HTML页面及Rewrite地址静态化支持,使原来Flash不利于搜索引擎收录的缺点得到很好的改善 2.放弃了V1中的相框设计,采用了更加美观的开放界面,使宽屏和大显示器用户拥有更好的浏览效果 3.后台管理模块更加强大,包括管理用户、修改配置文件、更改语言包、更换主题和管理所有图片文件夹等 4.基于V1的功能,包括自动探测文件夹、自动生成缩略图、支持Mp3背景音乐等 Imagevue V2新功能和特色 1.后台管理员增加目录管理,可设置特定用户管理某一特定图片文件夹,实现了相册的多人管理和分级管理 2.增加了Cache缓存模块,节省了大量图片打开时间 3.管理员可以在前台页面直接修改图片,使管理直观化 ImageVue相册程序是一个基于PHP的应用平台,无需Mysql的支持,界面用Flash呈现,非常的美观。美中不足的是少了放大、缩小、自动播放的功能。 * 功能介绍 1.自动生成缩略图 (需GD库) 2.支持背景音乐,并有相当成熟的流出理能力。 3.支持POPUP窗口,图片特写。 4.动态预览窗口 5.方向键控制 6.幻灯片功能 7.在线、本地管理功能 8.支持语言文件编辑 * 使用配置 压缩包内有三个目录,documentation是说明文档(英文),source是FLASH模板的源程序,upload是主程序,我们在虚拟主机建立一个目录,例如pic,然后将压缩包中的upload目录里面的全部文件及目录上传就可以了。upload文件夹中包含一个test子文件夹,运行该文件夹中的index.php可以检测服务器环境(GDtest DIRtest Permissions PHPinfo ),看你的服务器对imageevue的支持度是否良好。 图片是存放在content目录,你可以在上面建立多个目录,菜单会自动生成。文件夹和文件名中间不能带空格,否则无法显示。最多支持二级目录,否则显示有问题。原图片建议不要选择过大,要不然载入时间会过长,如果你的服务器速度快,就放原图的好。 好了,上面大致的介绍了一下,你也了解的差不多了,下面详细说说config.ini的配置: 用EmEditor v3打开config.ini文件: backgroundimage = back.jpg//设置管理界面左上角的背景图片// guestlogininfo = true //在登陆处,允许或禁止显示告诉用户可以作为guest用户做限制访问的信息。如果选择为true,意味着你愿意保留特殊的guest密码在你的password.php文档.如果设置为false,你将清除它// foldersorting = dd //设置在主菜单输出分类文件夹的方式.影响图片文件夹和组文件夹.dd(时间降序) da(时间升序) na(名称升序) nd(名称降序) rnd(随机显示) contentfolder = content/ //设置管理员编辑的内容文件夹.也可以通过URL设置。// imagesorting = na //设置图片列表输出图片的方式。参数和foldersorting相同// globalpath = //设置管理后台的相对地址或绝对地址// startheading = sitename 相册标题 startimage = load.jpg 编辑初始Flash载入图像 swflayer = false 窗口内外挂Flash,填入swf相对路径,在察看图像时会消失。 startfx = true 调用内置的flash效果修饰主窗口,可选值:blur,true ,false textcol = 34507A 菜单文本颜色 bgcol = EFEFEF 背景颜色 barcol = false 导航栏颜色,此处未定义,故为false menucol = bgcol,textcol ,导航栏配色,此处设定值表示继承之前设定的颜色,也可选设值:false ,bgcol,textcol ,textcol,bgcol ,[HEX color,HEX color] (注意要设置两个Hex值对应文本和菜单颜色) backimage = back.jpg ,网页窗口的背景图片 backalign = TL,背景图片对齐方式,可选值:TL (Top Left), T (Top) ,TR (Top Right) ,R (Right) ,BR (Bottom Right), B (Bottom), BL (Bottom Left) ,L (Left) ,M (Middle) audiopath = mp3/ 设定mp3 播放目录 navigation = 1,1,1,1,1,0,0,导航栏的风格设定,7个值分别对应[nextbutton],[previousbutton],[thumbnails],[motion],[open in popup],[open in blank],[toggle sound FX],1代表yes,0代表no。 imagepopinfo = 1,1,0,0,0,1 鼠标悬浮图像是显示信息设定,六个值分别对应,[clickaction, imagename, imagedimensions, imagesize, imagedate, description](强烈建议全部选上,要不然你的图片无法下载) popdisplay = 1,1,1,1,1,1,POPUP窗口的内容设定,可选值:[ containinswf, name, attributes, description, url, clickimageclose],建议全部选上。 播放mp3音乐。ImageVue支持播放mp3音乐,可以在你一边欣赏图片的同时一边听着动听的歌曲。在ImageVue的安装目录下建立mp3文件夹,放入mp3就可以了。修改congfig.ini的 audiopath属性还可以在浏览不同的图片文件夹时听不同的歌曲。 好了,基本上一个完美的flash相册程序就配置OK,下面是注意事项,一定要看: 强烈建议admin文件夹更名,因为进入后台的方法实在太简单了,只要输入密码,而输入guest竟然可以登陆,而修改admin下的password.php 也不是最好的方法,因为知道目录结构的人很容易下载此文件,用记事本就可以察看密码。 至此,ImageVue的简单教程就结束了,下面我们就来使用Sitemenu插件,使Imagevue更加完美: imageVue相册Sitemenu插件使用方法及注意事项: Sitemenu插件可以给你的imageVue相册添加一个flash的导航菜单。这样imageVue在与其他程序配合使用的时候更加方便。 1.下载文件(含源文件,供1.6升级使用,因为1.7的压缩包里已经包含此文件) 2.解压缩下载的文件,并上传新的imageVue.swf和sitemenu.ini文件。 3.打开你的配置文件(即config.ini)并添加如下行: sitemenu = sitemenu.ini (或任何其他的sitemenu.ini文件) 4.上传你的新配置文件 注意事项: 最主要的问题,在sitemenu.ini设置链接时不要带有“=”号,因为imageVue会把=号后面的东西过滤掉。比如你想链接到blog的一个分类,那么正常情况下应该添加如下链接:../blog/index.php?go=category_1,但是因为=号后面的部分会被过滤,所以就会造成链接不正常。 关于Slideshowimagevueconfig.ini 部分参数设定说明: maxwidth =false //自定义图片显示最宽 maxheight = false //自定义图片显示最高 autoscale = true //自适应浏览器视窗大小 keepaspect = true //自适应浏览器视窗大小 interval = 5 //显示秒数 displayimageindex = true //显示当前的图片张数 displayname = true //图片名称 displaydescription = false //图片文字描述 descriptionfont = Verdana //文字描述字体 descriptionsize = 13 //文字描述文字大小 scriptioncolor = textcol //文字描述文字顏色 scriptionleading = 2 scriptionalign = left //文字描述文字位置 displayposition = imagetop //文字显示区域(above、below、left、right、imagetop、imagebottom)

Pharmaceutical Language

Pharmacy 药学、药店
Pharmaceutical 药学的、药用的
Pharmacist 药剂师
Herbal 草药的
Outpatient 门诊病人
Narcotic 麻醉剂、催眠药
Prescription处方、处方
Powder 粉剂,散剂
Tablet 片剂
Capsule 胶囊剂
Pharmaceutics药剂学、制药学
Biopharmaceutics生物药剂学、生物制药学
Pharmacology药理学
Efficacy 功效、效验
Adverse effect不良反应
Monoclonal antibody单克隆抗体
Toxicity 毒性、毒力
Pharmacological screening 药理筛选
In vitro model 体外模型
Levodopa 左旋多巴
Dopamine 多巴胺
Diuretics 利尿剂
Experimental pharmacology实验药理学
Toxicological毒理学的
Acute toxicity急性毒性
Chronic toxicity慢性毒性
Biochemistry生物化学
Route of administration给药途径
Carcinogenicity致癌性、致癌力
Toxicology毒理学
Rare disease罕见病
Placebo安慰剂
Double-blind 双盲的、双盲测试
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs 非甾体抗炎药物
Digitalis洋地黄、毛地黄
Tranquilizer安定药
Material medica 药物学论著、药物学
Streptomycin链霉素
Medicinal plant药用植物
Ginseng人参
Hypotension 低血压
Tonic 强壮剂、补药、补剂
Prescription drug 处方药
Over-the-counter (OTC)非处方药
Antibiotics抗生素
Antibacterial activity抗菌活性
Bacteriostatic action抑菌作用
Central stimulant中枢兴奋剂
Dose-response relationship量效关系
Drug dependence药物依赖性
Intravenous 静脉给药
Mechanism of drug action药物作用机制
Median Effective Dose(ED50)半数有效量
Median Lethal Dose(LD50)半数致死量
Pharmacokinetics药物动力学
Structure-activity relationship 构效关系
Alkaloid生物碱
Flavonoids黄酮类
Volatile oil 挥发油
Baicalin 黄芩苷
Chlorogenic acid 绿原酸
Solvent extraction 溶剂萃取法
Spectroscopic analysis 光谱分析法
Fluorometry 荧光分析法
Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR 核磁共振
Ultraviolet detector 紫外检测器:
Controlled release preparation 控释制剂
Enteric capsules 肠溶胶囊剂
Aerosol 气雾剂
Targeting drug system (TDS) 靶向给药系统
Buccal tablets 口含片
Excipients 辅料
Suspending agent 助悬剂
Spray drying 喷雾干燥法

美国大学邮件列表

Birmingham Southern College   [email protected]
Faulkner University [email protected]
Huntingdon College  [email protected]
Judson College  [email protected]
Lyon College [email protected]
Samford University [email protected]
University of Mobile  [email protected]
University of Alabama/Huntsville [email protected]
University of Alabama/Tuscaloosa  [email protected]
University of Southern Alabama  [email protected]
Alaska Pacific University [email protected]
Arizona State University [email protected]
Embry Riddle University [email protected]
Grand Canyon University  [email protected]
Arkansas State University  [email protected]
Harding University [email protected]
Henderson State University  [email protected]
Hendrix College [email protected]
John Brown University [email protected]
Philander Smith College  [email protected]
University of Arkansas [email protected]
University of the Ozarks [email protected]
California Institute of Arts [email protected]
California Institute of Technology [email protected]
California Lutheran University  [email protected]
Chapman University  [email protected]
Concordia University  [email protected]
Harvey Mudd College  [email protected]
Holy Names College  [email protected]
Menlo College  [email protected]
Mt. St. Marys College  [email protected]
Occidental College [email protected]
Pacific Union College [email protected]
Pepperdine University  [email protected]
Pomona College [email protected]
St. Mary's College  [email protected]
United States International University [email protected]
University of the Pacific [email protected]
University of Redlands [email protected]
University of San Diego [email protected]
University of San Francisco [email protected]
West Coast University [email protected]
Whittier College  [email protected]
Colorado College  [email protected]
Colorado School of Mines  [email protected]
Colorado State University [email protected]
Fort Lewis State College [email protected]
Mesa State College  [email protected]
Regis University  [email protected]
University of Southern Colorado  [email protected]
Western State College [email protected]
Central Connecticut State University [email protected]
Connecticut College  [email protected]
Quinnipiac College [email protected]
University of Connecticut [email protected]
University of Hartford [email protected]
University of New Haven  [email protected]
Wesleyan University  [email protected]
Western Connecticut State University [email protected]
University of Delaware [email protected]
American University [email protected]
Catholic University  [email protected]
George Washington University [email protected]
Eckerd College [email protected]
Embry Riddle University  [email protected]
Flagler College  [email protected]
Florida Institute of Technology [email protected]
Florida Southern College [email protected]
Florida State University  [email protected]
Jacksonville University [email protected]
Rollins College  [email protected]
St. Thomas University [email protected]
Stetson University [email protected]
University of Florida  [email protected]
University of Miami  [email protected]
Agnes Scott College  stephanie.b[email protected]
Armstrong State College [email protected]
Brenau College  [email protected]
Emory University  [email protected]
Georgia College  [email protected]
Kennesaw State College [email protected]
LaGrange College [email protected]
Mercer University [email protected]
Oglethorpe University  [email protected]
Piedmont College [email protected]
University of Georgia  [email protected]
Wesleyan College [email protected]
Hawaii Pacific University [email protected]
Boise State University [email protected]
Idaho State University  [email protected]
Augustana College  [email protected]
Benedictine University  [email protected]
Bradley University [email protected]
College of St. Francis [email protected]
Concordia University  [email protected]
Depaul University [email protected]
Elmhurst College  [email protected]
Eureka College [email protected]
Illinois Benedictine College [email protected]
Illinois Institute of Technology [email protected]
Illinois Wesleyan University [email protected]
Knox College [email protected]
Lake Forest College [email protected]
Monmouth College [email protected]
North Central College  [email protected]
Rockford College  [email protected]
Saint Xavier University  [email protected]
Western Illinois University  [email protected]
Ball State University  [email protected]
Butler University  [email protected]
Depauw University  ADMISSIONS%[email protected]
Evansville University  [email protected]
Franklin College [email protected]
Indiana Institute of Technology  [email protected]
Indiana University  [email protected]
Purdue University [email protected]
Rose Hulman Inst. of Technology  [email protected]
St. Josephs College [email protected]
St. Marys College  [email protected]
Tri State University [email protected]
University of Indianapolis [email protected]
University of Notre Dame  [email protected]
University of Southern Indiana [email protected]
Wabash College [email protected]
Briar Cliff College  [email protected]
Buena Vista College  [email protected]
Central College [email protected]
Clarke College  [email protected]
Coe College [email protected]
Cornell College [email protected]
Drake University [email protected]
Grinnell College  [email protected]
Iowa State University [email protected]
Loras College  [email protected]
Luther College [email protected]
Morningside College [email protected]
St. Ambrose University [email protected]
University of Dubuque  [email protected]
University of Northern Iowa  [email protected]
Upper Iowa University [email protected]
Wartburg College [email protected]
William Penn College [email protected]
Emporia State University  [email protected]
Fort Hays State University  [email protected]
Pittsburg State University  [email protected]
Washburn University [email protected]
Centre College [email protected]
Cumberland College  [email protected]
Georgetown College  [email protected]
Kentucky Wesleyan College  admitkwc.aol.com
Thomas More College  [email protected]
Transylvania University [email protected]
University of Louisville  [email protected]
Western Kentucky University  [email protected]
Northeast Louisiana University [email protected]
Southeast Louisiana University [email protected]
University of New Orleans [email protected]
Bates College  [email protected]
Colby College  [email protected]
College of the Atlantic [email protected]
Husson College  [email protected]
Thomas College  [email protected]
University of New England  [email protected]
Goucher College [email protected]
Hood College  [email protected]
Towson State University [email protected]
University of Maryland  [email protected]
Villa Julie College  [email protected]
Washington College  [email protected]
Western Maryland College  [email protected]
American International College  [email protected]
Amherst College  [email protected]
Assumption College [email protected]
Babson College [email protected]
Bentley College [email protected]
Boston College  [email protected]
Boston University  [email protected]
Bradford College [email protected]L.COM
Brandeis University [email protected]
College of the Holy Cross  [email protected]
Emerson College [email protected]
Endicott College  [email protected]
Hampshire College  [email protected]
Harvard University  [email protected]
Lesley College [email protected]
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  [email protected]
Merrimack College  [email protected]
Mount Holyoke College  [email protected]
Simmons College [email protected]
Simon's Rock College [email protected]
Smith College [email protected]
Springfield College [email protected]
Wentworth Institute of Technology  [email protected]
Wheaton College  [email protected]
Worcester Polytechnic Institute  [email protected]
Adrian College  [email protected]
Albion College  [email protected]
Alma College  [email protected]
Calvin College [email protected]
Grand Valley State University  [email protected]
Hillsdale College [email protected]
Hope College  [email protected]
Kalamazoo College [email protected]
Michigan State University [email protected]
Michigan Technical University  [email protected]
Northwood University [email protected]
Oakland University [email protected]
Western Michigan University [email protected]
Augsburg College [email protected]
Carleton College [email protected]
College of St. Benedict  [email protected]
College of St. Scholastica  [email protected]
Concordia College  [email protected]
Gustavus Adolphus College [email protected]
Macalester College  [email protected]
St. John's University [email protected]
St. Mary's College  [email protected]
Saint Olaf College [email protected]
University of St. Thomas  [email protected]
Millsaps College  [email protected]
Avila College  [email protected]
Culver-Stockton College  [email protected]
Drury College  [email protected]
Fontbonne College  [email protected]
Maryville University [email protected]
Missouri Western State College [email protected]
Northwest Missouri State University  [email protected]
Rockhurst College  [email protected]
St. Louis University  [email protected]
University of Missouri/Kansas City [email protected]
University of Missouri/Rolla [email protected]
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黃連-中華百科全書

黃連(Coptidis Rhizoma),為毛茛科(Ranunculaceae)黃連屬(Coptis)若干種植物之根莖。
一、黃連(Coptis Chinensis Franchet):野生或栽培於川、貴、鄂、陝等省。藥材名味連、川連,雞爪連、光連。
二、三角葉黃連(C. Deltoides C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao):栽培於川省,野生種已不多見。藥材名雅連、峨嵋連、嘉定連、刺蓋連。
三、峨嵋野連(C. Omeiensis C. Y. Cheng):野生於川省之陰濕叢林中。藥材名野黃連、鳳尾連。
四、雲南黃連(C. Teetoides C. Y. Cheng):野生於雲南、西康昌都一帶,今雲南亦有栽培者。藥材名雲連。
五、短萼黃連(C. Chinensis Franchet var. Brevisepala W. T. Wang et Hsiao):分布桂、粵,閩、皖、浙、贛、湘、黔等省,少有栽培。藥材名土黃連、土川連。
六、五裂黃連(C. Quinquesecat W. T. Wang):滇省東南部。藥材名亦充雲連用。
七、臺灣黃連(C. Quinquefolia Miquel f. Ramosa Makino):臺灣省宜蘭太平山一帶山區野生。全草供藥用,以產量少,自銷,無輸出品。
八、尼泊爾黃連、印度黃連(C. Teeta Wallich):約分布於喜馬拉雅山麓及印度北部,尚待精查,香港市場稱尼泊爾黃連。
九、日本黃連(C. Japonica Markino):有下列三變種:菊葉黃連(var. Japonica [Huth] Satake)即本種,產於北海道及本州西海岸一帶。藥材名日蓮。芹葉黃連(var. Disecta [Yatabe] Nakai):分布與本種同。狹葉黃連(var. Major [Miquel] Satake):產本州、四國向太平洋方面山地,根莖特小,概缺市場性。
十、三葉黃連(C. Trifolia [L.] Salisbury [C. groenlandica(Oeder)Fernald]):出北美州,全草用為苦味健胃藥,此種日本高山亦有野生,未見利用,此種生藥未見有輸入品。
十一、五加葉黃連、梅花黃連(C. Quinquefolia Miquel):野生於日本,以根莖特小未見利用。此種亦見於臺灣植物目錄,尚待精查。
此外,類似生藥有下列各種:
一、鮮黃連:為小檗科(Berberidaceae)植物鮮黃連(Jeffersonia Dubia Benthamet Hooker),野生於我國東北及韓國,亦含黃連素(Berberine),供黃連之代用品。藥材名鮮黃連(Jeffersoniae Rhizoma),即朝鮮黃連之意。
二、北美黃連根:為北美黃連(Hydrastis Canadensis Linnaevs),分布於加拿大及美國東部,根莖名北美黃連根(Hydrastis Canadensis Rhizoma),除採用少量野生種外,主用美國卡羅萊納州之栽培品。主成分Hydrastine,亦含Berberine及Canadine等,用於殺菌性苦味健胃、子宮黏膜炎症,及子宮收縮劑。
三、胡黃連:為玄參科(Scrophulariaceasa)植物胡黃連(Picrorhize Kurrooa Royle et Bentham)及西藏胡黃連(P.Scrophulariaeflora Pennell)之根莖,前者產於自克什米爾以迄錫金間之喜馬拉雅山區;後者產於西藏南部及雲南西北。藥材名胡黃連(Picrorhizae Rhizoma),不含Berberine,用於健胃、輕瀉、驅蟲。
黃連為本經草部上品,別錄、陶注、新修、開寶、嘉祐(引蜀本,按即唐本)圖經、藥性論、四聲、拾遺、日華子;圖經、衍義、綱目(引吳普及珍珠囊、湯液等金元諸說)及圖考等均有著錄,關於其藥能,歷代本草著錄如次:
一、本經:「黃連味苦寒。主熱氣目痛,眥傷泣出、明目。腸澼腹痛下痢。婦人陰中腫痛。」二、別錄:「微寒無毒。五臟冷熱、久下洩澼膿血、止消渴、大驚、除水利骨、調胃厚腸、益膽、療口瘡。」三、藥性論:「殺小兒疳蟲、鎮肝去熱毒。」四、拾遺:「主羸瘦氣急。」五、日華子:「治五勞七傷、益氣、止心腹痛。驚悸煩燥、潤心肺。長肉、止血。并瘡疥、盜汗、天行熱疾。豬肚蒸、為丸,治小兒疳氣。」六、珍珠囊:「治鬱熱在中、煩燥惡心,兀兀欲吐、心下痞滿。」七、湯液:「主心病逆而盛,心積伏梁。」八、綱目:「去心竅惡血、解服藥過劑煩悶,及巴豆、輕粉毒。」
黃連之藥名,綱目之「釋名」曰:「其根連珠而色黃,故名。」其別名,本經曰:一名王連;藥性論曰:一名支連。至於現在其他名稱,均屬藥業界之商品名。
黃連之化學成分,川黃連計含有(小檗鹼Berberine,俗稱黃連素)百分之七至九、黃連鹼(Coptisine)、甲基黃連鹼(Worenine)、掌葉防己鹼(Palmatine)、非洲防己鹼(Columbamine)等生物鹼,及黃檗酮(Obakunone)、黃檗內酯(Obakulactone)等。
峨嵋野連含有Berberine, Worenine, Jatrorrhizine(即Jateorhizine,藥根鹼),Columbamine及兩種非酚性生物鹼、兩種酚性生物鹼。
日本黃連含有Berberine約百分之七,Palmitine, Coptisine, Worenine, Jateor-hizine, Magnoflorine(木蘭花鹼)等。
關於藥理作用,黃連煎劑或小檗鹼對於若干病原菌、真菌、原蟲顯示抗菌作用。靜脈注射或口服小檗鹼,可使血管擴大而具降血壓作用。並有利膽作用,慢性膽囊炎,口服小檗鹼有良好效果。(那琦)

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

峨眉黄连

峨眉黄连Coptis omeiensis (Chen) C.Y. Cheng,根状茎黄色,圆柱形,极少分歧,节间短。叶具长柄;叶片稍革质,轮廓披针形或窄卵形,长6-16厘米,宽3.5-6.3厘米,三全裂,中央全裂片菱状披针形,长5.5-15厘米,宽2.2 -5.5厘米,顶端渐尖至长渐尖,基部有长0.5-2厘米的细柄,7-10对羽状深裂,侧全裂片长仅为中央全裂片的1/3-1/4,斜卵形,不等二深裂或近二全裂,两面的叶脉均隆起,除表面沿脉被微柔毛外,其他部分无毛;叶柄长5-14厘米,无毛。花葶通常单一,直立,高15-27厘米,花序为多歧聚伞花序,最下面2条花梗常成对地着生;苞片披针形,边缘具栉齿状细齿;花梗长达2.2厘米;萼片黄绿色,狭披针形,长7.5-10毫米,宽0 .7-1.2毫米,顶端渐尖;花瓣9-12,线状披针形,长约为萼片的1/2,中央有蜜槽;雄蕊16-32,花药黄色,花丝长约4毫米,心皮9-14。蓇葖与心皮柄近等长,长5-6毫米,宽约3毫米,种子3-4粒,黄褐色,长椭圆形,长约1.8毫米,宽约0.6毫米,光滑。2-3月开花,4-7月结果。

三角叶黄连

Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao,根状茎黄色,不分枝或少分枝,节间明显,密生多数细根,具横走的匍匐茎。叶3-11枚,叶片轮廓卵形,稍带革质,长达16厘米,宽达15厘米,三全裂,裂片均具明显的柄;中央全裂片三角状卵形,长3-12厘米,宽3-10厘米,顶端急尖或渐尖,4-6对羽状深裂,深裂片彼此多少邻接,边缘具极尖的锯齿;侧全裂片斜卵状三角形,长3-8厘米,不等二裂,表面沿脉被短柔毛或近无毛,背面无毛,两面的叶脉均隆起,叶柄长6-18厘米,无毛。花草1-2,比叶稍长;多歧聚伞花序,有花4-8朵;苞片线状披针形,三深裂或栉状羽状深裂;萼片黄绿色,狭卵形,长8-12.5毫米,宽2-2.5毫米,顶端渐尖;花瓣约10枚,近披针形,长3-6毫米,宽0.7-1毫米,顶端渐尖,中部微变宽,具蜜槽;雄蕊约20,长仅为花瓣长的1/2左右,花药黄色,花丝狭线形,心皮9-12,花柱微弯。臀葵长圆状卵形,长6-7毫米,心皮柄长7-8毫米,被微柔毛。3-4月开花,4-G月结果。

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