Friday, March 18, 2011


[1] It is widely(commonly) accepted(hold)+THAT
[2] A widely accepted(commonly) hold idea(point of view, viewpoint, opinion, assumption)is +THAT/NP 
[3] A/The dominant(prevalent, prevailing)idea(see [2])is NP/to DO
[4] It is taken for granted +THAT(or: We often/frequently take it for granted THAT)
[5] People(The majority) seem to get accustomed to the idea(see [2]),without questioning, THAT
[6] People are willing to regard NP1 as NP2/ADJ 
[7] People are willing to DO, while reluctant to DO

Type2 提出异议
[1] However (But),…
[2] Such idea(see[1-2]),if not entirely ADJ1,is somewhat ADJ2 and needs careful consideration. 
ADJI=unreasonable, unacceptable, inappropriate, improper, undesirable,
ADJ2=misleading, doubtful, etc
[3] In fact(As a matter of fact),…(follow[2])
[4] However, it is not (quite, necessarily)the case.
[5] This (It) is not (quite, necessarily) the case and needs to be further considered/discussed. (or: further consideration/discussion)

Type3 论述的展开:说明原因和理由,层进,举例,转折
[1] The reason lies in several aspects,
[2] The reason why +clause+ [1, underlined] 
[3] There are several remarkable reasons.
[4] 层进in addition, besides, furthermore, what's more, on the other hand, meanwhile, for one thing…for another; finally, above all, in short.
[5] 举例for example, for instance, such (general term) as (specific terms),a typical (striking) example is that, a case in point
[6] 转折however, but, nevertheless, on the contrary
[7] 条件if , provided that, unless, as long as, etc

Type4 就…而言;关于
[1] as far as …is/are concerned: As far as current situation is concerned
[2] as to: the problem as to NP有关…的问题

Type5 问题
[1] Although much effort has been made, the situation is far from satisfactory (or: the problem remains unsolved, little improvement has been achieved)
[2] There is a tendency, as recent study (investigation) has pointed out (shown, revealed, indicated),+THAT
[3] There is growing concern about +NP
[4] It will inevitably (is likely to )result in (lead to ) unwanted (serious) consequence (or NP)
[5] Unfortunately,…
[6] We will not be able to afford the risk of overlooking the seriousness of the matter.
[7] The process, once initiated, is most likely irreversible.
[8] We are constantly (frequently) faced with NP

Type6 重要与必要;(应)注意与重视
[1] NP1 is of great importance (necessity, value) in NP2 (or: NP is of enormous significance)
[2] The importance (necessity) of NP (to do sth.) lies in (the fact) that…
[3] NP1 plays, as is known, an irreplaceably important role in NP2
[4] The irreplaceably important role NP1 plays in NP2 is significant (obvious)
[5] NP1 is an indispensable part of NP2
[6] It is important (necessary) to DO (or: THAT)
[7] Special attention should be pay to …(or: We should pay special attention to…)
[8] What we should take into consideration is +NP

Type7 行动
[1](immediate, emergent, effective) Measures are being taken (has been 
taken, should be taken) to DO
[3] We have made much effort, there is still more we need to make (cf. We have learnt a lot, there is much more we need to learn.)

Type8 二择其一
[1] If it were left for me to decide whether (why + clause),I would, without hesitation, choose to DO (or: I would prefer the former/the latter)
[2] To DO/NP is a matter of preference.
[3] It is difficult to make a choice for one can hardly gain most without losing any.
[4] The difficulty lies in the fact that the advantages and disadvantages of both cases are equally obvious.
[5] In fact, we may well preserve a delicate balance or compromise between the two than go to extreme.
[6] It is not sensible to exclude one of the choices completely
[7] (of two conflicting ideas, concepts) Though conflicting to one another, they are so closely associated that understanding one will be impossible without discussing the other.
[8] The benefits of NP are varied…
[9]While disadvantages are unavoidable, it is the advantages that prevail.

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